Waste management at the local level, Nakornratchasima; Picture source: http://koratstartup.com/2015/09/25/waste-plant/
- The current policy frameworks enhance the waste reduction & utilization, encourage waste-to-energy, establish the local governments for the development of waste management facility and endorse public and private sectors to participate in waste management projects (UNEP, 2011).
The government set the install capacity target for this technology at 500 MW by 2036. With an attractive incentive from the Thai government, the waste-to-energy power production has high potential to engage the local and foreign investors (EPPO, 2015).
Thailand currently has a policy framework targeted at improving benefits from waste management, waste reduction, and supporting waste-to-energy in the public and private sectors. Public local administrations, in particular, have developed various programs to study greenhouse gas emissions in provinces around Thailand, such as in Rayong, Suphanburi, Phitsanulok, Udonthani, Bangkok, and Phuket Provinces. Furthermore, the National Energy Policy Committee issued a resolution on 14 May 2015 to support renewable and alternative energy through the Alternative Energy Development Plan: AEDP 2015-2016. The strategy focuses on bioenergy production by generating electricity from waste fuels, biomass, and biogas, with the target set towards maximum production capacity. Owing to governmental incentives that encourage waste-to-energy production, Thailand is able to generate 500 megawatts in electricity. This further promotes foreign investments in the country (EPPO, 2015).
An example case study on waste management at the local level is the application of the “Polluter Pays Principle (PPP)” by the Glang City District Council, Rayong Province. The district eliminated the installation of public rubbish bins on streets that are involved in the initiative, where each household has the responsibility to collect and sort waste for sales to generate more income for the community rather than disposing all forms of trash. Furthermore, community youth are instilled with the sense of responsibility for society as a whole, and are actively encouraged to participate in waste sorting activities. In terms of biodegradable waste, it is mixed with bioextract and organic fertilizer retrieved from excess branches that are used for decorating green areas in the district. Using organic waste in this way reduces methane gas emissions and odors from disposing waste to landfill. Not only that, the district also developed a community biogas production system from swine manure, whereupon the gas produced is used for water boiling in slaughterhouses. These abovementioned waste sorting activities emphasize natural and easy-to-use methods that do not waste energy, and are able to generate income from sales of organic fertilizer. Furthermore, these approaches apply the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy – self-reliance, reducing environmental destruction, applying natural means to manage energy issues and global warming.
- วารสารการจัดการสิ่งแวดล้อม (Journal of Environmental Management) ปีที่ 7 ฉบับที่ 1 เดือนมกราคม – มิถุนายน 2554 (http://digi.library.tu.ac.th/journal/0320/JEMX_007_001_2554.pdf)
- UNEP. 2011. Waste to Energy: A case study from Thailand. http://www.unep.org/ietc/Portals/136/Events/UNEP%20AIST%20Workshop%20in%20Tsukuba%20March%202011/5_WasteToEnergy_CaseStudy_Thailand.pdf
- EPPO. 2015. Power Development Plan 2015-2036. http://www.eppo.go.th/power/PDP2015/PDP2015_Eng.pdf