The Ministry of Transportation announced in 2011 that will implement the mitigation acts such as biofuel use in the transportation sector and sustainable transportation. At an early stage, the improvement of public transport systems called ‘People – centered Urban Mobility in Bangkok’ will perform by using the financial support from Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) or Green Climate Fund. It expected to reduce 0.3 to 0.7 MtCO2e by 2025. After 2025, the 4 measures, i.e. encouraging the utilization of biofuel in public transports, shifting to the more efficient vehicle engine, improving the linkage and performance of the transportation system and changing the commuter’s behavior to reducing the emissions, are expected to active (MoT, 2015).
Furthermore, the government and the state enterprise focus on Electric Vehicle (EV). The electric vehicle roadmap is now in drafting process (OIE, 2015). In the meantime, the Metropolitan Electricity Authority of Thailand (MEA) is implementing the EV charging stations (MEA, 2013).
Transportation is considered to be the sector that uses high volume of fossil fuel in comparison to the economy. Most of fossil fuel is imported and the use is fluctuated to the oil price and the scarcity which impacts the transportation prices. In 2011, a study of locals’ behavior on transportation choices was conducted and it was found that locals choose to travel on road which more costly than other options, indicating in table 1 After evaluation with statistics of registration of vehicles, it increased 3.5 percent from 34.6 vehicles, including personal vehicles, business vehicles and motorcycles. In 2013, it increased to 35.8 vehicles. In 2014, the increasing of registered vehicles impacted the use of fuel on road as it became the most expensive (Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, 2559).
Table 1 the ration of use and expense of each transportation type in 2013 (Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, 2559)
|Types of transportation within the country||Ratio of use in each type to the total transportation (%)||Expense (Baht/ton-km.)|
Reduction of GHG Emission in Thailand
Alternative Fuel for Thailand’s Transportation Sector
The pilot project of retailing biodiesel (B2) began in the end of 2004 by the support from Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency. Biodiesel and diesel are combined to replace the lubricant of 2 % (B2) and sell through Bang Ja and PTT gas stations in Chiang Mai to local transportation of 1,300 vehicles at a lower price than regular diesel, 50 Thai cents per liter. This project encourages consumers to use biodiesel.
In Thailand, the development of new biodiesel technologies is on-going since 2002 such as;
- The Royal Chitralada Projects
- Research and Development of Biodiesel from Vegetable OIl by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research
- Study and Demonstration of Biodiesel Production at Community Level
- Biodiesel Production System for Trucks by Faculty of Engineering, Price of Songkla University
Development of Technology for Biodiesel Production is the prototype for both continuous and non-continuous production and it eventually developed to produce for commercial. Bang Ja biodiesel production unit and Krabi community of Palm Oil received supports from the faculty of engineering, Price of Songkla University in designing factories, using their researched technologies which meet European standards. The production process is full cycle, meaning methanol is brought back to reuse in order to reduce emission.
For Thailand, diesel is the most demand among oil with rapid growth which causes the high price, affect the economy as well. Hence, the benefits of biodiesel can be summarized as below;
- Reduction on currency exchange when import oil
- Reduction they poverty of low-class citizens through better incomes
- Completion of burning reduces smoke and GHG which cause Greenhouse effect and alleviate the global warming
- Exhaust gas of diesel has less pollution which causes cancer
- Increasing the energy security of the country
- Creating jobs in agriculture
Ethanol production began since 2006 and it continues to increase every year. The government encourages consumers to use ethanol instead of gasoline in the ratio from 10% to 85%. Currently, there are four products in the markets; Gasohol 95, Gasohol 91, E20 and E85. The government also announced measures to encourage the use of ethanol such as;
- Commercialization of gasohol measure supports for the cheaper price of gasohol at 1.50 baht per liter as it was agreed on February 5, 2007 by the committee of Ministry of Energy
- Ministry of Energy officially sent out letters to other ministries to reports on the use of gasohol as the choice of fuel
- Ministry of Energy addressed to the committee of the Commodity Management Association of Thailand, Bureau of the Budget and the Prime Minister’s Office to set new regulations of new car purchases in 2005 to be able to use gasohol.
- Communication to the public on the use and security of gasohol
- Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency has studied the use of gasohol 95 on vehicles
- Ministry of Energy provided budgets for gas stations to clean their oil tanks for gasohol
- Ministry of Energy conducted blind tests to ensure and create trust on the use of gasohol
- Encouragement on the use of ethanol in higher ratios such as setting E 20 price cheaper than benzin 95 and reduction 5% on tax of E20 vehicles
Target of Electricity Generation by type of Fuel
The development of alternative and renewable energy plan has the goals to support and encourage the production of biogas for transportation sector. Palm oil, sugar fiber and cassava are the valuable economic commodities for the country which are taken into consideration for agriculture strategy development. Ministry of Energy encourages the used products from agriculture as raw materials to produce energy to ensure the balance between vegetable energy, food and benefits of the country. Below are the capacity of renewable energy in 5 types:
1.Biodiesel The production of biodiesel is predicted to be able product 14 million liter per day in 2036 but this prediction hasn’t taken into account of palm oil importing price.
Figure 2 Process of Biodiesel Production, Picture source: http://averyschemblog.blogspot.com/2016/04/about-biodiesel.html
2. Ethanol From initial assessment, Thailand would have the capacity of ethanol production from sugar fiber 4.8 million liter per day and from cassava 6.5 million liter per day. Thus, Thailand would have the capacity to produce ethanol for bensin approximately 11.3 million liter per day.น
Figure 3 Process of Ethanol Production from Sugar Fiber (Left) and Cassava (Right); Picture source: http://www.thaisugarmillers.com/tsmc-04-02.html
3. Pyrolysis Oil Through the pyrolysis technology system, waste can be used to produce electricity while plastic can be used to product heat. The full capacity of the production is 700 tonnes per day.
4. Compressed Biomethane Gas (CBG) Biomethane is synthetic natural gas produced from biomass or biogas through quality improvement process. This gas is similar to natural gas and ca be used with pressure of 200 bars. Minister of Energy brings this concept to bring biogas produced from remote areas through pipeline and improve the quality to NGV level. They also encourage the production of CBG. It aims to boost business to investor in further gas stations and helps locals with access to energy sources.
Figure 4 Production Process of CBG, Picture source: http://www.thaicbg.com/
From a study of agriculture of CBG, it was discovered that 13 provinces have capacity to energy plant for one million rai which can produce CBG 10,000 tonnes per day. In 2036, it aims to produce 4,800 tonnes per day.
5. Alternative The future alternative materials to produce fuel energy are bio oil, biogas produced from seaweed and hydrogen. The production processes are still in the research phrase for efficiency and competitiveness.
- Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (2015) Development of Alternative Energy Plan. Ministry of Energy. http://www.eppo.go.th/images/POLICY/PDF/AEDP2015.pdf [Thai version], http://www.eppo.go.th/images/POLICY/ENG/AEDP2015ENG.pdf [English version]
- Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency. http://www.thaicbg.com/ (ข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมสำหรับ CBG)
- Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (n.d.) คู่มือการพัฒนาและการลงทุนผลิตพลังงานทดแทนชุดที่ 7 เชื้อเพลิงเอทานอล. กระทรวงพลังงาน. http://webkc.dede.go.th/webmax/sites/default/files/%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B7%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%AD%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%87%20%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%A5.pdf
- กรมพัฒนาพลังงานทดแทนและอนุรักษ์พลังงาน. คลังความร็ซ ไบโอดีเซล. http://www4.dede.go.th/dede/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=898&Itemid=123&lang=th
- Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (2015) Thailand’s first biennial update report under the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/thabur1.pdf