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Greenhouse gas emission reduction in the transport sector in the global context.

11
Aug

Greenhouse gas emission reduction in the transport sector in the global context.

The transport sector is responsible for about a quarter of global energy-relate carbon emission due its dependence on fuel oil (UNFCCC, 2014). There are many possible actions that can be done to reduce the emission which caused by transportation. The more fuel-efficient vehicles or hybrid vehicles have been supported in many countries. The electric cars are currently in the world’s attention due to its commercialized technologies and cut down costs. Moreover, the rail and public transport systems should be able to abate the emission in big cities.

The transport sector is responsible for about a quarter of global energy-relate carbon emission due its dependence on fuel oil (UNFCCC, 2014). There are many possible actions that can be done to reduce the emission which caused by transportation. The more fuel-efficient vehicles or hybrid vehicles have been supported in many countries. The electric cars are currently in the world’s attention due to its commercialized technologies and cut down costs. Moreover, the rail and public transport systems should be able to abate the emission in big cities.

Cleaner Vehicles

There are a variety of technologies for transportation which reduce greenhouse has such as advanced vehicles, alternative fuel and fuel efficiency. The following compares three types of advanced vehicles:

  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is combination of fuel engine with electricity which help reducing emission comparing to regular cars. The development of HEV is the beginning of developing electricity vehicles with no emission.

Figure 1 Example of Hybrid Car Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plug-in_hybrid_electric_vehicle_(PHEV)_diagram.jpg

  • Clean Diesel Vehicles (CDV) is the combination of advanced technology; for example: the use of diesel with low sulfur. This technology can be used for public transportation.

Figure 2 Clean Diesel Vehicles Source: http://www.dieselforum.org/about-clean-diesel/what-is-clean-diesel

  • Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles (CNG) is a modification of vehicles to consume natural gas which contains 95% of methane. The gas is compressed into fuel tanks with the pressure of 200-240 bars. Both gasoline and diesel vehicles can be modified to use natural gas.

Figure 3 Example of Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles; Source: https://webberenergyblog.wordpress.com/tag/compressed-natural-gas/

  • The comparison of reducing carbon dioxide from fuel, it was found that cleaner vehicles emit less greenhouse gas and pollution than regular cars as well as using less fuel. The hybrid vehicles use fuel less than regular cars approximately 6,000 liters in their lifetimes. They are better than clean diesel vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles. The quality of fuel plays a crucial role in GHG emission, especially for developing countries. The following are clean fuels for vehicles.
    • Gasoline: the new gasoline vehicles including hybrid cars have indication to use gasoline in order to maintain the emission control system such as Catalytic Converter. UNEP has set the target to only use gasoline worldwide.
    • Fuel with low sulfur helps reducing air pollutions such as sulfate, sulfur dioxide and dusts. The use of fuel with low sulfur means the growth of advanced technological vehicles such as emission filtration system. Alternative fuel (ethanol and biodiesel) are available in the market as it uses for alternative choices. They help reducing carbon dioxide, dusts, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

     

    Reference

    • Jong, R., Åhman, M., Jacobs, R., & Dumitrescu, E. (2009). Hybrid electric vehicles: an overview of current technology and its application in developing and transitional countries. UNEP-United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/transport/pcfv/PDF/HEV_Report.pdf 

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