Water is essential for living and business development. Natural water includes raining, surface water and ground water. It is a natural product that we cannot increase or decrease production as we demand
Water resource is the fundamental resource to develop the country and essential to humanity living. However, the extension in agricultural, industrial, traveling and services includes the population increasing and variation of climate was resulted to the problems about resources and biodiversity. Therefore, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was implemented in many countries by established the responsible organization to prepare the water resource policy and reforming relevance laws for enabling environment management which related to the water governance.
Global Water Partner (GWP) has given the meaning of “Water Governance is about the politic, social, economic, and administrative system which operated in order to develop and manage water resources to deliver the water service to the society”.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
Integrated water management is process to manage water effectively, including water supply and allocation, used for various purposes, conservation and restoration of water resources for sustainable water consumption, as well as solving problems arising from water resources both quality and quantity.
Water is a key driver of economic and social development while it also has a basic function in maintaining the integrity of the natural environment. However water is only one of a number of vital natural resources and it is imperative that water issues are not considered in isolation.
IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.
IWRM helps to protect the world’s environment, foster economic growth and sustainable agricultural development, promote democratic participation in governance, and improve human health. Worldwide, water policy and management are beginning to reflect the fundamentally interconnected nature of hydrological resources, and IWRM is emerging as an accepted alternative to the sector-by-sector, top-down management style that has dominated in the past.
Stages in IWRM planning and implementing; Picture source :http://www.gwp.org/en/The-Challenge/What-is-IWRM/
Component of Water Resources Management
- Water Allocation: Allocating water to major water users and uses, maintaining minimum levels for social and environmental use while addressing equity and development needs of society.
- River basin planning: Preparing and regularly updating the Basin Plan incorporating stakeholder views on development and management priorities for the basin.
- Stakeholder participation: Implementing stakeholder participation as a basis for decision making that takes into account the best interests of society and the environment in the development and use of water resources in the basin.
- Pollution control: Managing pollution using polluter pays principles and appropriate incentives to reduce most important pollution problems and minimize environmental and social impact.
- Monitoring: Implementing effective monitoring systems that provide essential management information and identifying and responding to infringements of laws, regulations and permits.
- Economic and financial management: Applying economic and financial tools for investment, cost recovery and behavior change to support the goals of equitable access and sustainable benefits to society form water use.
- Information management: Providing essential data necessary to make informed and transparent decisions and development and sustainable management of water resources in the basin.
- Water Security: Water security is defined as the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. (UN-Water, 2013)
- Water and Climate Change:
- Water is the primary medium through which climate change influences Earth’s ecosystem and thus the livelihood and well-being of societies. Higher temperatures and changes in extreme weather conditions are projected to affect availability and distribution of rainfall, snowmelt, river flows and groundwater, and further deteriorate water quality. The poor, who are the most vulnerable, are likely to be adversely affected.
- Water resources and how they are managed impact almost all aspects of society and the economy, in particular health, food production and security, domestic water supply and sanitation, energy, industry, and the functioning of ecosystems. Under present climate variability, water stress is already high, particularly in many developing countries, and climate change adds even more urgency for action. Without improved water resources management, the progress towards poverty reduction targets, the Millennium Development Goals, and sustainable development in all its economic, social and environmental dimensions, will be jeopardized.
- Adaptation to climate change is closely linked to water and its role in sustainable development. To recognize this reality and to respond accordingly presents development opportunities. Various necessary adaptation measures that deal with climate variability and build upon existing land and water management practices have the potential to create resilience to climate change and to enhance water security and thus directly contribute to development. Innovative technological practices and implementation of strategies are also needed at the appropriate levels for adaptation as well as for mitigation. Adaptation to climate change is urgent. Water plays a pivotal role in it, but the political world has yet to recognize this notion.
10 efficient water consumption programs
- Shower: shower water is minimal water consumption. Using bathtubs consumes only 110-200 liters of water.
- Shave: using a paper towel before shaving and then using water from glass to wash the face can save water consumption. Cleaning shaver by dipping in the glass use less water than washing directly from the tap.
- Brushing: using water gargle and brushing the teeth via a glass consume only 0.5-1 liters of water. Flowing water from the tap throughout the brushing consume 20-30 liters of water.
- Flushing: flushing the toilet consumes 8-12 liters of water.
- Washing: during washing water should not be left water flow all the time, it will consume water around 9 liter per minute.
- Washing crockery container: using paper towels to remove dirty and then washing all containers in the tub save water more than washing from the tap directly. It consumes only nine liters of water per minute.
- Washing fruits: using a container of water for washing fruits and vegetables consume less water than using water from direct tap.
- Wipe: using a container of water consume less water than using a hose to clean the floor.
- Watering: using watering pot instead of using hose from faucet directly consume less water. For wide areas, using springer or water remaining from others activities can save the water.
- Car washing: using a water hose directly consumes 150-200 liters of water. Changing water consumption behavior will reduce 20 – 50 % of water consumption.