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Thailand Low-Carbon Society Vision 2030

Department of Environmetal Qulity Promotion

Department of Environmetal Qulity Promotion

Thailand Low-Carbon Society Vision 2030

Thailand’s Low Carbon Society

Diffusion of low-carbon technology is necessary to achieve a Thailand’s low-carbon society. In order to mitigate the emission to a lower level, many sectors are involved; such as the residential sector, energy efficient buildings, energy efficient industry and fuel switching, and fuel substitution in the transport sector and electricity generation sector.

Thailand’s Low Carbon Society vision 2030

Thailand’s Low Carbon Society vision 2030 projects the possibility of reducing about 42.5% of the total CO2 emission related to energy supply and use in the country in the 2030 BAU case. In the 2030 CM scenario, there are 9 actions or GHG mitigation measures in the residential, commercial, industrial, transport, and power sectors. The next step is the brief roadmap to achieve this GHG mitigation target in the 2030 counter mitigation (CM) scenario.

 

Action 1: Energy efficiency improvement in households

Action 1.1: (Electricity related)

In the residential sector, it is expected that these efficient electric devices will have penetration rates up to 100% in 2030. The mechanism of Thailand’s demand side management (DSM) and energy efficiency development plan could readily achieve this target.

Action 1.2: (Non-Electricity related)

In the residential sector, it is expected that efficient devices such as energy efficient wood stoves and LPG stoves will have penetration rates up to 100% in 2030. The mechanism of Thailand’s energy efficiency development plan would readily achieve this target.

Action 2: Energy efficiency improvement in buildings

In buildings, it is expected that these efficient electric devices will have penetration rates up to 100% in 2030. The mechanisms of Thailand’s Energy Conservation Promotion Act, DSM and energy efficiency development plan could readily achieve this target.

Action 3: Energy efficiency improvement in buildings (Building codes)

In this action, building insulation and building envelope must comply with Thailand’s building codes 2010. New buildings must comply with this code. It is assumed that penetration rates will be up to 100% in 2030. The new Thailand building codes could readily achieve this target.

Action 4: Energy efficiency improvement in industry

Action 4.1: (Electricity related)

This action assumes that the technologies in agriculture, mining, and construction sub-sectors will not be changed, while the technologies in textiles, food & beverage, chemical, others, metallic, and non-metallic subsectors will be improved. The mechanism of Thailand’s Energy Conservation Promotion Act, DSM and energy efficiency development plan could readily achieve this target.

Action 4.2: (Non-electricity related)

This action assumes that the technologies in agriculture, mining, and construction sectors will not be changed, while the technologies in textiles, food & beverage, chemical, others, metallic, and non-metallic industries will be improved. The mechanism of Thailand’s Energy Conservation Promotion Act, and energy efficiency development plan could readily achieve this target.

Action 5: Fuel switching in Industry

This action assumes that the technologies in agriculture, mining, and construction sectors will not be changed, while the technologies in textiles, food & beverage, chemical, others, metallic, and non-metallic industries will be switched to lower carbon fuels. The mechanism of Thailand’s ECP Act, and energy efficiency development plan could achieve this target without much difficulty.

Action 6: Fuel economy improvement (FEI) in the transport sector

Action 6.1: (Efficiency improvement)

In this action, energy efficiency improvement in both the passenger and freight transports such as small vehicles, large vehicles, buses, and motorcycles needs to increase up to 20% in 2030 by using advanced automotive technologies. In addition, in this action eco-cars in Thailand will also be promoted with tax reduction and partial subsidy in investment. In addition, environmental performance standard of vehicles is needed.

Action 6.2: (Travel demand management)

In this action, comprehensive promotion of travel demand management (TDM) in the passenger transport is required. It is estimated that travel demand in small vehicles, large vehicles, buses, and motorcycles decreases by 7.4% in 2030 by using eco-driving, bus priority, and non-motorized transport. Several studies of Ministry of Energy show that this action does not require any capital investment except the incentives and promotion, and the TDM action is readily cost effective.

Action 7: Fuel switching in the transport sector (Natural gas vehicle & Hybrid vehicles)

Action 7.1: (Natural gas vehicles)

In this action, technology of both the passenger and freight transports such as small vehicles, large vehicles, and buses will switch from oil to compressed natural gas (CNG). In addition, the technology improvement in CNG engines will increase by 20% in 2030.

Action 7.2: (Hybrid vehicles)

In this action, hybrid and plug-in hybrid cars will replace conventional gasoline engines, resulting in energy savings of 30% when compared to the 2030 BAU scenario.

Action 8: Modal shift in the transport sector

Action 8.1: (Passenger transport sector)

In this action, the modal mix of passenger transport will change such that the shares of walking, bus, small vehicles, bikes, train, motorcycles, large vehicles, and airplanes would be 25%, 20%, 15%, 12.8%, 12%, 10%, 5%, and 0.2% respectively.

Action 8.2: (Freight transport sector)

In this action, the modal mix of freight transport will be changed only in the large vehicles and train categories. The modal share of small vehicles, ships, and airplanes will not be changed. The share of large vehicles will decrease by 28% and will be substituted by train.

Action 9: Efficiency improvement and fuel switching in power generation

Action 9.1: (Transmission and distribution loss)

In this action, the transmission and distribution losses will improve to 5%.

Action 9.2: (Fuel switching)

In this action, Thailand’s Power Development Plan 2010 (PDP 2010) has been considered. This action increases the share of renewable energy and nuclear energy in power generation.

Action 9.3: (Technology transfer)

In this action, the new power plant technology such as Integrated Gasification Combine Cycle (IGCC) and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) will be added to substitute the old technologies such as coal and lignite-based power plants. Therefore, the efficiency of power plants will improve to be 56% and 48% for CCGT and IGCC power plants, respectively.

According to the 9 actions of the roadmap, Thailand’s LCS vision 2030 could contribute a CO2 reduction of 42.5% to the nation. In the 2030 CM scenario, GHG mitigation measures in the residential, commercial, industrial, transport, and power sectors could achieve GHG mitigation of 239,560 kt-CO2 accounting for 42.5% reduction in the GHG emission under the 2030 BAU scenario.

Together, we can help Thailand to be a low-carbon society by living sustainably; which can be simply divided to food, house, energy, transportation, water, waste, and sustainable tourism.

 

Source:

  • 2010. Low-carbon society vision 2030: Thailand. Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology. Thammasat University

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