- Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) policy which supports developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas from deforestation and forest degradation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Developing countries, participating in the program, receive positive reinforcement and incentives.
What is REDD+ ?
It is a framework which has been introduced at COP14 and officially announced to be effective at COP 15 in 2009. The main differences between REDD and REDD+ are the following:
- The importance of equal priority in reduction of emission from deforestation and forest degradation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks
- Long-term estimations of emission should be considered on a land basis than an activity basis for an accuracy of impacts
- Inclusion of human rights of local people and new social and environmental protections
- Introduction of financial mechanisms and equitable distribution of funds
Furthermore, REDD+ has been considered the possibility of becoming a measure as parts of the National Asset Management Agency (NAMA).
Application of REDD+ in Developing Countries
Developing Countries that want to join REDD+ must deploy activities to reduce emission from deforestation and forest degradation by considering the capability and situation of the countries through three phrases:
- Development of REDD Strategies, Policies and/or Measures should take into account of targets and activities indicated in the UNFCCC policy or Forest Reference Level.
- Execution of REDD Strategy’s activities can be divided into five sessions; reduction of emission from deforestation, forest degradation, preservation of carbon level within forest, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of carbon stocks. The following tables provide examples of key performance indicators (KPIs) in each activity.
REDD Activities KPIs Reduction of emission from deforestation
- Forest is one of the key KPIs of this activity but UNFCCC has discussed the differences between natural forests and forestation for industry
Reduction of emission from forest degradation
- Biomass: an example of carbon reduction from forests. It is the changes in structures of forests
- Biodiversity: the decreasing in species or a distinctive evolution of species
- Forest health: the frequency of wildfire, new diseases or new invasion of foreign species
enhancement of carbon stocks
- Management of forests and connectivity
- Supports for locals to protect and preserve forests
Sustainable management of forests
- Certification of forests products
- Reduction of commercial logging and shifting agriculture
Maintenance of carbon level within forests
- Landscape-scale restoration
- Forest ecosystems
3. Monitoring, assessment and report: the country members of REDD program must monitor and conduct a report of performance
- Monitoring can be done through advanced technology such as remote sensing and greenhouse gas calculation
- Reporting should take into account of transparency, connectivity of information, accuracy and assurance
- Baldauf, T., Plugge, D., & Köhl, M. (2009) Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD): A Climate Change Mitigation Strategy on a Critical Track. Retrieved from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/410/art%253A10.1186%252F1750-0680-4-10.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1186%2F1750-0680-4-10&token2=exp=1470899559~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F410%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252F1750-0680-4-10.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1186%252F1750-0680-4-10*~hmac=fdf7261b4eb5dcfb4eb1fbdfd848b33f0bfa101c95cff91729ed0d4221c61bc3
- Román-Cuesta, R.M. Frequently asked questions on REDD+. Retrieved from: http://www.reddccadgiz.org/documentos/doc_554772732.pdf
- Holloway, V., & Giandomenico, E. (2009). The history of REDD policy. Carbon Planet White paper, Adelaide, Australia. Retrieved from http://redd.unfccc.int/uploads/2_164_redd_20091216_carbon_planet_the_history_of_redd_carbon_planet.pdf
- REDD04: https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/import/downloads/iucn_position_paper_scope_redd_09_09.pdf