- Nationally appropriate mitigation action (NAMA) is a voluntary measure to mitigate GHG emission among developed and developing countries. NAMA activities are not limited as long as emission reduction is in line with the goals of national sustainability including economic and social development, ending of poverty, advancement of technology, financing and capacity building. Every country has set its own measures in mitigating GHG emissions. With supports from developed countries such as financial aids, technology and capacity building, it helps increasing the ability of GHG emission reduction in developing countries.
NAMA can be divided into two types: target setting of GHG emission reduction and GHG emission reduction in line with the national development goals.
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
Clean development mechanism is the concept of GHG emission reduction introduced in Tokyo to support developing countries to achieve their targets through carbon trading with developed countries. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions is a set of international policies and actions under UNFCC that developing and developed countries voluntary undertake as part of a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve individual targets, developed countries provide supports to developing countries.
Development, Encourage and Actions of NAMA
Development of NAMA is consisted of four steps:
Step 1: Stakeholder Engagement
Discussion and consulting with all stakeholders expect investors,
Step 2: NAMA Development Program
Development of NAMA project shall refer to national development goals which connect to the key material issues of the countries such as environment or energy. The program needs to have a methodology for GHG emission calculation and clear understanding of national development goals. Each country has to take into account of budgets, reporting and assurance of programs.
Step 3: NAMA Registry
The development of NAMA program should cover all requirements from Step 2 and then submit the outline of the program through NAMA Registry under UNFCCC
Step 4: Support and Actions of NAMA Program
Communication of performance is important to ensure the involvement of stakeholders
Current Status of NAMA
In 2014, South America has the most involvement of NAMA programs with 38 percent while Asia and Africa are following with 27 percent and 25 percent respectively. The total registered programs of NAMA are 118 programs which of seven programs have already begun.
· 42 percent of energy sector · 7 percent of industrial sector · 15 percent of construction sector · 6 percent of other sectors · 14 percent of waste sector · 4 percent of forestry sector · 9 percent of telecommunication · 3 percent of agriculture sector
- Blodgett, C., Rohe, J., Kabisch, S., & Tanzler, D. (2012). Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: A Technical Assistance Source Book for Practitioners. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. Jakarta, Berlin, Hamburg.
- Conway, K. M., Lütken, S., Peña, J. O., Röser, F., Sharma, S., & de Vit, C. (2013). Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action on Efficient Lighting. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved from: http://www.unep.org/pdf/Guidebook_for_development_of_a_nationally_mitigation_action.pdf
- Haselip, J. A., Lütken, S. E., & Sharma, S. (2014). Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action for Solar Water Heaters. Retrieved from: http://orbit.dtu.dk/fedora/objects/orbit:134282/datastreams/file_ad47a943-1335-49e6-bdb2-ff30096299e1/content
- van Tilburg, X., Cameron, L., Bhasin, S.Eisbrenner, K., Esser, L. (2014) Annual status report on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) 2014. Mitigation Momentum. Retrieved from: http://www.ecofys.com/files/files/mitigation-momentum-annual-status-report-nov-2014.pdf
- Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Public Organization). (2015) http://ghg361.tgo.or.th/index.php/news/