According to The Convention from United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), all Parties are required to take into account their responsibilities and capabilities, to formulate and implement programs containing measures to mitigate climate change.
Mitigation actions could be economy-wide, cover several or single sectors, such as energy supply and demand, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. There is a number of mitigation options, which Parties may use taken into count their national circumstances, availability of technology and financial resources, mitigation potential and the policy implementation issues. There is also a link between climate change mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development.
Mitigation policies and measures used by developed country Parties mostly focused on the large emitting sectors, such as energy and transport. Strengthening of climate change policy portfolios resulted in policies and measures in some key areas being substantially strengthened, through more stringent requirements, wider coverage and increased investment. Regulatory and fiscal instruments were complimented by market based instruments such as GHG emission trading schemes.
Developed countries periodically present their mitigation actions in their National Communications, which are summarized in the compilation and synthesis reports. More recently, developed countries have agreed to implement under the Convention quantified economy-wide emission targets for 2020.
The Actions on mitigation directly focus on reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. To implement the measurable acts, it requires all parties to develop their responsibilities and capacities which cover a single or multiple sectors. There are various types of mitigation options which may take national circumstances, available technologies, financial resources, mitigation possibilities, and policy implementations into account. Moreover, the climatic mitigation not involves only emission abatement, but also sustainable development. The emission limitation or reduction acts in global level are:
- Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA):
- With support from the developed countries, the developing countries can contribute to abate or minimize the emission from business-as-usual operation to meet the global target in 2020. The developing countries participates in this scheme under the context of sustainable development which can be national governmental initiative or operations across sectors (UNFCCC, 2014a).
- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD):
- The REDD is the mitigation efforts for the forestry sector. It is the incentive mechanisms that aim to encourage the developing countries to undertake the activities relating to emission abatement from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable forest management, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD-plus) (UNFCCC, 2016).
- Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport:
- The emissions from the aviation and maritime transport have been contributed increasingly to global GHG emission. As a result, the cooperation among UNFCCC and the International Civil Aviation Organization and International Maritime Organization has been implemented to address the issue. The Annex I parties shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of the greenhouse. According to the IPCC guideline, the ‘bunker fuel emissions’ are calculated and reported as part for the national GHG inventories but will not include in the national totals because these emissions are not subject to the limitation and reduction commitments of Annex I parties (UNFCCC, 2014b).
- Action on mitigation: Reducing emissions and enhancing sinks, UNFCCC, http://unfccc.int/focus/mitigation/items/7171.php
- UNFCCC. 2014a. FOCUS: Mitigation – NAMAs, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. http://unfccc.int/focus/mitigation/items/7172.php.
- UNFCCC. 2014b . Emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transport (international bunker fuels). http://unfccc.int/methods/emissions_from_intl_transport/items/1057.php
- UNFCCC. 2016. REDD+ Web Platform. http://redd.unfccc.int/