โดยกรมส่งเสริมคุณภาพสิ่งแวดล้อม

Infrastructure

Department of Environmetal Qulity Promotion

Department of Environmetal Qulity Promotion

Infrastructure

 

Urban infrastructure networks are made up of complex interdependent systems and technologies which require efficient management and control. Yet, in uncertain circumstances such as natural or man-made disasters can bring about infrastructure risks in developing cities.

Heat waves, cold waves, severe storms, extreme rainfall events and flooding; would likely continue impacting many utilities and transportation infrastructures in aspects of changes in storm tracks, frequencies and intensities and sea-level rise (See the table below).

Issues System Impacts Environment Economy & Society
Transportation Impacts due to River and Coastal Flooding
  • Increased travel time..
  • Loss of trips…
  • More miles.
  • More hours.
  • more emissions due to more travel miles.
  • Loss of productivity and disruption of production chains.
River Flooding
  • Temporary loss of land and land activity.
  • More non-point source loads.
  • Extended floodplains, more debris, and more erosion.
  • Property losses.
  • Productivity and quality of life losses.
  •  Transportation Infrastructure damage.
Sea Level Rise
  • Permanent loss of some coastal land.
  • Temporary loss of land and land activities.
  • Wetland loss and erosion.
  • Property losses.
  • Productivity and quality of life issues.
  • Transportation infrastructure damage.
Water Supply
  • Less reliable local supply.
  • Higher or lower stream flows and water tables.
  • Productivity and quality of life losses.
  • Less dissolved oxygen
  • More non-point source pollution.
  • Warmer water.
  • Ecosystem stress
  • Less biodiversity.
  • Productivity property values and quality of life issues.

Impacts of climate change on infrastructure
Graphic source: Impacts of Climate Change on Infrastructure, Huron River Watershed Council; Modified be ERM-Siam Co., LTD.

 

1. Energy

Energy sector produces the most greenhouse gas emission. In 2035, OECD has predicted the global need of energy will increase by 90% due to rising of middle class in China, India, and other developing countries with more power to purchase up to 1.7 billion cars. Although the world still depends on fossil fuel, there is on-going improvement and development of energy efficiency.

Global warming has forced energy sector to create and develop new innovation as alternative solution, such as Carbon-neutral biological alternatives to reduce the use of fossil fuel. Moreover, there is an increasing implementation of alternative powers such as wind power and solar panels which has become popular alternative choice of electricity production. Nuclear industry also has an opportunity to grow in the near future while fuel energy still has to comply with GHG emission regulations and compliance.

Growth in world energy supply by fuel and region in the New Policies Scenario, 2009-2035, Source: The Chartered Insurance Institute, 2012

 

2. Transportation

There are many researches on the relationship between increasing temperature and transportation in the past with the focus on GHG emission which is the main cause of global warming. However, there is only a few numbers of studies on the impacts of increasing temperature on transportaion. This type of study is the emerging field which only occur in the 21 century. Thus, it comes no surprise that there is very limited research of the topic in Thailand.

Thailand’s big flood, 2011, widely impacted to infrastructure , Photo source: VOA News, photo gallery, October 31 2011, Gemeinfrei, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17219049

 

Heavy rain tends to lead to flood which has direct consequence to the infrastructure system of all transportation by air, land and sea. Every time there is flooding, Thai government grants billion baht to ensure the restoration and maintenance of the infrastructure of transportation. However, the impacts from flooding varies from areas to areas, seasons and mitigation plans of each infrastructure. Furthermore, there is no proper system to collect data to evaluate the vulnerability of Thai infrastructures to the increasing temperature.

 

3. Waste

Research and studies of climate change impacts on waste is limited even though waste is one of the main factors causing GHG emissions. Waste management process including transportation, landfills, burning and biogas contributes to global warming. However, climate change also has reversibly impacts on waste management process, which might lead to more impacts. For instant, floods as a consequence of increasing temperature occur more often and severely which could pose damages to infrastructure such as waste management facilities and roads. Subsequently, it would slow down the process and lead to overcrowding of waste. This consequence could potentially impacts near-by communities with odor and increases health risks.

Flood trash’s obstacle in 2011 , Photo source: http://www.chiangraitimes.com/bangkok-struggles-to-clear-garbage.html

 

Source:

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