Freshwater is a scarce resource that will get even scarcer as the world’s human population grows and the climate changes. These are affected by major river floods that are projected to raise along with the level of warming in the 21st century. Climate change beyond the 21st century is projected to decrease renewable surface water and groundwater resources in most dry subtropical regions and intensify competition for water among sectors. Currently, the frequency of droughts will likely rise by the end of the 21st century in dry regional. On the other hand, water resources are projected to raise at high latitudes. The increase in concentrations of pollutants during droughts; and disturbance of treatment facilities during floods will decrease raw water quality and cause of risks to drinking water quality.
IPCC (2014) projected that global marine species would redistribute and be reduced in marine biodiversity in sensitive regions by 2100. From the climate change observations, sea level rise will cause coastal systems and low lying areas about to submergence, flooding and erosion throughout 21st century and beyond. Coastal risks would impact the population growth, economic development and urbanization are all human pressures on coastal ecosystems. Fisheries and tourism would be affected by climatic and non-climatic drivers that affect coral reefs with habitat erosion, increase coastline exposure to waves and storms and degrade environmental features. High damages could affect some low-lying developing countries and small island states.
- IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full_wcover.pdf
- Linking climate change and water resources: impacts and responses IPCC. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/ccw/chapter3.pdf