Climate change is likely to have its first impacts on food supply in several regions of the world. The food system will be threatened by climate change threatens through salination, drought, and fire. Also, aquaculture production systems, both freshwater and marine, are affected within the abundance and distribution of harvested aquatic species. Climate change not only increases plant pests and disease, but also potentially impacts all aspects of food security, including food access, utilization, and price stability.
Without any adaptation, local temperature would raise in excess of about 1°C above pre-industrial which has negative impacts on yields for the major crops (wheat, rice and maize) in both tropical and temperate zones. While crop demand is forecasted to increases by 14% per decade until 2050; from the 2030s, there is projected that negative impacts on average yields grows with median yield impacts of 0 to -2% per decade for the rest of the century. After 2050, the risk of more severe impacts increases.
Safeguarding food security in the face of climate change also implies avoiding the disruptions or declines in global and local food supplies that could result from changes in temperature and precipitation regimes and new patterns of pests and diseases.
Thailand, one of the biggest rice exporters and food producers with over 40 per cent of the population relying on agriculture for their livelihoods, annually faces to drought and flooding. These weather extremes threaten Thailand’s food security and food production systems.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Food Security and Food Production Systems,” Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report Climate Change 2014: Impacts Adaptation, and Vulnerability (United Nations, March 2014). http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Chap7_FGDall.pdf