Ocean acidification is a process of ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth’s oceans, caused by the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Generally, the ocean has the scale of pH about 8.0-8.1 which is in the range of basicity (alkalinity). When carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by seawater, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration, and saturation states of biologically important calcium carbonate minerals. All mentioned chemical reactions are called as “ocean acidification”. In areas where are absorbed carbon dioxide too much, the oceans become undersaturated with these mentioned chemical. It directly threatens to the skeletons and shells of many marine organisms.
Ocean acidification can influent ocean species in various levels, especially, on some calcifying species, including oysters, clams, sea urchins, shallow water corals, deep sea corals, and calcareous plankton. These shelled organisms are at risk, which effect to the whole food chain as a primary food source for ocean wildlife and humans. This ocean acidification also impact to a billion people worldwide as their primary food from the ocean and fishery business.