โดยกรมส่งเสริมคุณภาพสิ่งแวดล้อม

Observed Changes

Declining Artic sea ice

Sea ice is frozen ocean water. It forms, expands, and melts in the ocean. Typically, sea ice is covered with snow. Importantly, Arctic sea ice retains the regions cool and stabilizes global climate. A bright surface of sea ice reflects 80 percent of the striked sunlight back to the space. When sea ice melts in the summer, the ocean absorbs 90 percent of the sunlight. The oceans heat up and Arctic temperatures increase. Declining Artic sea ice between 1980 and 2012 Source: NASA In... อ่านต่อ

Shrinking Ice Sheets

An ice sheet is a mass of glacial land ice extending more than 50,000 square kilometers (20,000 square miles). Currently, there are important ice sheets on Earth which cover most of Greenland and Antarctica. These two ice sheets contain more than 99 percent of freshwater ice on Earth. The Antarctic Ice Sheet expands merely 14 million square kilometers (5.4 million square miles) and contains 30 million cubic kilometers (7.1 million cubic miles) of ice. The Greenland Ice Sheet extends about 1.7... อ่านต่อ

Sea level rise

Since 1850, sea level rise has been steadily accelerating  During the 20th century, sea level increased about 15-20 centimetres (roughly 1.5 to 2.0 mm/year). Sea level rise is affected by a couple of factors including thermal expansion, the melting of glaciers and ice caps, and the loss of ice from the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. Sea level rise from Satellite Data: 1993-Present First, thermal expansion, owing to the ocean heat content has risen; the water will expand,... อ่านต่อ

Ocean Acidification

Ocean acidification is a process of ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth’s oceans, caused by the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Generally, the ocean has the scale of pH about 8.0-8.1 which is in the range of basicity (alkalinity). When carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by seawater, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration, and saturation states of biologically important calcium carbonate minerals. All mentioned chemical reactions... อ่านต่อ

Ocean heat

The ocean captures and release heat over long periods of time. Thereby providing a central role in stabilizing Earth’s climate system. The ocean heat content shows yearly and decades-long variations, since natural climate patterns, such as El Niño and The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) influence the heat content but also  regional climate. The Ocean heat content since 1960-2015, Photo soucrce: NASA, Modifief by: ERM-Siam Co., Ltd. The figure is shown an increase in ocean heat... อ่านต่อ

Carbon Dioxide

  Carbon Dioxide is one of the most significant greenhouse gases. It is being directly released and increased by human activities, such as deforestation, fossil fuel burning and natural changes (e.g. respiration in creatures and volcano eruptions). Proxy (Indirect) Measurements, Photo source: NASA, Modified by:ERM-Siam Co., Ltd. CO2 levels have increased above 300 PPM since 1950 (The second industrial revolution). CO2 level globally surpassed 400 ppm in 2014 (NOAA). This consequence... อ่านต่อ

Global temperature rise

  NOAA Research has collected the change in global surface temperature from land and ocean surface .  From 1884 to 2015, the global temperature has raised significantly milestone of 1° Celsius above the pre-industrial era. The record heats for 2015 are enforced by El Nino and human-induced global warming. Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. The period from 1983 to 2012 was likely the warmest... อ่านต่อ

What are greenhouse gases?

What are greenhouse gases? A greenhouse gas (GHG) is in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. There are six mainly potential greenhouse gases, that are Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). What is the greenhouse effect? An atmospheric heating phenomenon, caused by short-wave solar... อ่านต่อ

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